MULTICULTURALITÀ E/O UNIVERSALISMO (ING. &FR.)

Multiculturalism and universalism – As we all know by now, ‘culture’ has emerged in recent decades as the subject of intense and divisive political controversies at both the national and international level. The intensity and divisiveness of these controversies can be felt most acutely in a number of areas. These include: identity politics or the politics of cultural differences and recognition, multiculturalism, cross-cultural communication or more specifically, with the issue of cultural relativism vs. moral universalism, particularly as it is brought to bear on the debates and struggles about human rightsdemocracyhuman development, social and global justice –to mention only a few of the most contentious ones. Continue reading

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L’universalismo rispettoso delle differenze culturali è raggiungibili?

Is universalism respectful of cultural differences attainable? It does not seem possible to ignore the need for normative justification (thus, moral theory) when we venture into the social and political critics arena. By their very nature, arguments that we must inevitably use in the moral sphere must be included in a wider theoretical framework in order to demonstrate that criticisms do not merely depend on circumstances, nor satisfy suspect ideological goals. Continue reading

I CONFINI DEL DIRITTO NELLA REALTÀ SOCIALE (ING. & FR.)

The bounds of law 1 – ‘Law’ is not omnipotent within the social field and everything happens, according to societies and times, in the infinite variety of inclusion and exclusion relationships with other normative systems. Next, the issue of the so called ‘science of Law’ appears in the current epistemological range that must combine with other sciences: this shows that Law does not have a position overlooking all other disciplines, but has relations of cooperation, competition and hostility, according to the disciplines and the moments, creating questionable bounds. The only possible posture might be that of a certain epistemology like Michel Foucault when trying to think of the emergence of human sciences in Western history. Continue reading

La posta in gioco dei diritti delle donne migranti nell’Unione europea. Schiavitù, prostituzione e traffico di donne. (Ing. & Fr.)

The Challenges of Framing Women Migrants’ Rights in the European Union

In all countries of the European Union domestic work performed by migrant women, often in an irregular legal status, is increasing. Many workers face poor living and exploitative working conditions. Over the last decades, migrant domestic workers and advocacy organizations have developed multi-level strategies to improve those living and working conditions. In the contribution different and sometimes contradicting strategies of how a European network of migrant domestic workers and other actors mobilize will be identified and analyzed. It will be argued that the resonance the network achieved in the European Union was ambivalent and encompassed unintended consequences : On the one hand it allowed structural access to EU policy makers but on the other hand it narrowed down the political opportunities due to a fusion of migration policies and security policies. Continue reading

Identità tribale e mondializzazione (ing. & fr.)

Tribal identity and globalization

Characteristic of a necessary stage in the development of human societies in evolutionary thought, the tribe is, in “classical” anthropology, an operating model  of “stateless societies”. In its broadest sense, it appears as an instrument for classification and  hierarchisation of societies and cultures. Like the ethnic group, the tribe presents identity features shared by the populations concerned. Decolonization and postmodernist deconstruction of these two notions have very clearly called into question ethnic classifications, but much less clearly the use of the term “tribe”. Reflecting the persistence of this identity referent – vigorously reaffirmed in recent decades – in the representations of the populations of a part of Africa and the Middle East, where the tribe is a name sharing reality – a local categorization, the Arabic qabīla for example – and nominative – used to identify individuals and groups, these names are perpetuated in a secular way. Continue reading

ONU : Monitorare il rispetto dei diritti umani associato agli acquisti fondiari su vasta scala. (Ing. & Fr.) Monitoring Human Rights Violations Associated with Large-Scale Land Acquisitions.

This chapter aims to contribute to the debate on contemporary ‘land grabbing’ and its impact on human rights. It describes the role played by United Nations (UN) human rights mechanisms in monitoring violations associated with large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), with a focus on UN treaty bodies. A typology of human rights violations associated with LSLAs is presented, on the basis of the assessment that UN treaty bodies have made in examining the impact of LSLAs in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, and Vietnam. Christophe Golay Continue reading

Le donne e la globalizzazione – Silvia Federici (Ing. & Fr.)

Women and Globalization  Silvia Federici

“Globalization” has been described in different ways. In the literature emanating from the international financial institutions, it is portrayed as a more effective system of economic management, ensuring the free circulation of goods and enhancing the “comparative advantage” of different countries, each presumably utilizing its resources to the best effect for both local populations and world development. Policy-analysts thus stress the globalization of financial markets, capital investments, new technologies which, we are told, will lead in the foreseeable future to increased prosperity also in the “developing” countries. My own perspective is that “globalization” is a strategy seeking to determine a process of global proletarianization and the formation of a global labor market as means to cheapen the cost of labor, reduce workers’ entitlements, and intensify exploitation. These, in fact, are the most unmistakable effects of the policies by which globalization is driven. But however defined, the social and economic consequences of globalization cannot be denied. After two decades of globalizing interventions in the world economy (creation of the World Trade organization (WTO), structural adjustment, TRIPS, etc.) one billion people live in conditions of “absolute poverty” (UN Population Fund 2001). Meanwhile, the Third World debt has increased from $800 billion in 1980 to a staggering $2,900 billion in 1999 (World Bank 2000), precluding the possibility of repayment, while the predicted industrialization of the Third World has not materialized despite the proliferation of Free Processing Zones (FPZs). Most important, mechanisms are now in place – debt servicing, structural adjustment, import liberalization and, crucial to all, generalized warfare – that systematically lead millions of people away from their means of subsistence, uprooting them from their lands, their jobs, their countries, in what appears as the largest proletarianization and migration process since the turn of the 20th century (Federici 1992; 1999). Continue reading