Tribal identity and globalization
Characteristic of a necessary stage in the development of human societies in evolutionary thought, the tribe is, in “classical” anthropology, an operating model of “stateless societies”. In its broadest sense, it appears as an instrument for classification and hierarchisation of societies and cultures. Like the ethnic group, the tribe presents identity features shared by the populations concerned. Decolonization and postmodernist deconstruction of these two notions have very clearly called into question ethnic classifications, but much less clearly the use of the term “tribe”. Reflecting the persistence of this identity referent – vigorously reaffirmed in recent decades – in the representations of the populations of a part of Africa and the Middle East, where the tribe is a name sharing reality – a local categorization, the Arabic qabīla for example – and nominative – used to identify individuals and groups, these names are perpetuated in a secular way. Continue reading
This chapter aims to contribute to the debate on contemporary ‘land grabbing’ and its impact on human rights. It describes the role played by United Nations (UN) human rights mechanisms in monitoring violations associated with large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), with a focus on UN treaty bodies. A typology of human rights violations associated with LSLAs is presented, on the basis of the assessment that UN treaty bodies have made in examining the impact of LSLAs in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, and Vietnam. Christophe Golay Continue reading
Women and Globalization Silvia Federici
“Globalization” has been described in different ways. In the literature emanating from the international financial institutions, it is portrayed as a more effective system of economic management, ensuring the free circulation of goods and enhancing the “comparative advantage” of different countries, each presumably utilizing its resources to the best effect for both local populations and world development. Policy-analysts thus stress the globalization of financial markets, capital investments, new technologies which, we are told, will lead in the foreseeable future to increased prosperity also in the “developing” countries. My own perspective is that “globalization” is a strategy seeking to determine a process of global proletarianization and the formation of a global labor market as means to cheapen the cost of labor, reduce workers’ entitlements, and intensify exploitation. These, in fact, are the most unmistakable effects of the policies by which globalization is driven. But however defined, the social and economic consequences of globalization cannot be denied. After two decades of globalizing interventions in the world economy (creation of the World Trade organization (WTO), structural adjustment, TRIPS, etc.) one billion people live in conditions of “absolute poverty” (UN Population Fund 2001). Meanwhile, the Third World debt has increased from $800 billion in 1980 to a staggering $2,900 billion in 1999 (World Bank 2000), precluding the possibility of repayment, while the predicted industrialization of the Third World has not materialized despite the proliferation of Free Processing Zones (FPZs). Most important, mechanisms are now in place – debt servicing, structural adjustment, import liberalization and, crucial to all, generalized warfare – that systematically lead millions of people away from their means of subsistence, uprooting them from their lands, their jobs, their countries, in what appears as the largest proletarianization and migration process since the turn of the 20th century (Federici 1992; 1999). Continue reading
As anthropologists increasingly study Christianity in Melanesia, data has become available which allow us to address comparative questions about its differential impact in various societies of the region. In this article, the author looks at how conversion to Christianity has transformed women’s roles in one society in Papua New Guinea and one in Vanuatu. In particular, he examines what Christian values have meant for the construction of new gender roles. Continue reading
Hannah Arendt ‘Il dominio totale si raggiunge quando la persona umana è sottoposta alla disintegrazione dalla sua personalità juridica.’
In « The Origins of Totalitarianism », Hannah Arendt writes that the “the first step on the road to total domination is to kill the juridical person in man“.The assertion describes an eternal and absolute truth to be found in contemporary, complex and globalized legal systems. Everything began, however, at the beginning of Modern Age, and yet immemorial, on the misty Olympus of rights. Indeed, in the realm of the subjective rights, many of them urged to belong to the upper caste, that of the fundamental rights, and among which, some claimed, due to a kind of natural precedence, to be entitled to the leading position, whether that it was hierarchical or simply logical. The elite believes to be constituted of the non-derogable or inalienable rights listed in the European Convention on Human Rights or the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Autism, language, communication, picture, remediation.
The communication conveys a message that passes through language. This does not mean that it cannot pass through other codes. Therefore, it would be unwise to say that people who do not share with us the commonly accepted codes do not communicate. This is the case with persons with autism who are not in the same relationship to the world as we are. Their language can be developed only from meaningful elements and solidified by pictures/words that will anchor them in the social contract. We will discuss here creating a transverse space from the codes developed by these children and the reception we are trying to develop, giving rise to a linguistic creation in order to optimize communication.
The reception of a piece of art as an object of exchange and mediation requires several ‘go-between’ in a context of language and culture learning. In this article, we would like to highlight the teacher’s mediation as well as the learner’s one and examine the emergence of verbal and body language in academic multicultural courses of French as a foreign language, in which visual and choreographic works of art are introduced. We will show, through the thorough analysis of a few examples, to which extent the teacher, by stimulating multimodal experiences of mediation for the learner, fosters the construction of interactional and intercultural competences.