Attraverso la fotografia – Ian mcewan Il Comfort degli Estranei

The conspiracy in The Comfort of Strangers- Ian McEwan

References to photography are infrequent in McEwan’s work, and therefore it becomes all the more interesting to study the distinction that can be made among the photos, from one work to another. To approach The Comfort of Strangers, it should be noted that a curious first parallel occures between a passage of this novel and another one, from The Cement Garden. Continue reading

Il ruolo, l’impegno e le prestazioni delle agenzie di aiuto come importanti fornitori di beni pubblici globali. (Ing. & Fr.)


Beyond much rhetoric and stated ambition in recent years, the implementation of global public policies has been weak so far. There is a huge gap between the official discourse and the reality. This chapter focuses on the role, commitment and performance of aid agencies as ‘small’ but important suppliers of global public goods. While acknowledging some advances in the right direction (broad international recognition and improved costing of the global risks, consensus on the high vulnerability of the low-income countries and the need to act urgently, and substantial financing commitments) the author argues, based on available evidence from evaluations and effectiveness reviews, that only limited progress has been made in the aid delivery model and that the poor have not yet gained much from these undertakings. Continue reading

L’umanesimo occidentale contemporaneo: l’umano al centro del mondo.

Western humanism nowadays : “Man is the measure of all things”. Western, democratic and secular society, has for a long time forged a system of moral values being assumed universal and whose name is humanism. Humanism is an impulse, it is as much a part of our nature as our “humanity”. Who wants the good of humanity is humanist. Thus no one could oppose this declaration without being accused of immoral, fascist or worse: Continue reading


Multiculturalism and universalism – As we all know by now, ‘culture’ has emerged in recent decades as the subject of intense and divisive political controversies at both the national and international level. The intensity and divisiveness of these controversies can be felt most acutely in a number of areas. These include: identity politics or the politics of cultural differences and recognition, multiculturalism, cross-cultural communication or more specifically, with the issue of cultural relativism vs. moral universalism, particularly as it is brought to bear on the debates and struggles about human rightsdemocracyhuman development, social and global justice –to mention only a few of the most contentious ones. Continue reading

Glossario delle definizioni e dei termini chiave nel settore del diritto internazionale umanitario (Ing.)



Glossary of definitions and key terms in the field of International Humanitarian Law                                                                     Although it is agreed that cultural relativism shows an emerging problem carried out too early or too late, at that turning point of history, we must acknowledge that it is rather late in a world with increasing globalization, ‘glocalisation’, interdependence and interconnection. We must reckon with the consequences of cultural complexities and build up a concept of alternative culture more appropriate that the one underlying cultural relativism. In so doing, we can understand better the normative, pragmatic and political needs that we must face, at that moment of history, to be accountable to others in a more serious manner than we did until now. We can thus be more likely to drastically break the walls of our ‘cultural prisons’ and reject the comfortably numbing but dangerous illusions of a relativistic life where everybody keeps to oneself. Nowadays academics continue debating which ways the foundations of cultural relativism can be, or not, established and justified; yet it is not possible to ignore the necessity of a normative justification (and consequently the moral theory)when venturing into the political and social criticism arena. By their very nature, arguments inevitably used in the moral sphere need to fit in a broader theoretical framework to demonstrate that criticisms do not purely apply nor meet dubious ideological objectives. If the consensus generally applied to the fact that “the cultural other” is at the same time equal and different, the influence that is likely to be granted for equality, difference and their implications can be very variable. Hence the relative importance given to the native and human rights in this articulation is diverse as well. This variability can be compared, on the one hand, to concrete situations related to customary law in the field: there is no doubt that we are more sensitive to tradition when it does not enter in conflict with our basic values, when otherwise we will tend to bring forward human rights. On the other hand, an ideological preference for asserting differences or for an egalitarianism supporting homogeneity, will certainly influence the way to conceive the articulation between universal and local (international/customary law). Some people may assume that the issue of the right balance between cultural and universal rights would be illusory to the extent that such an opening can be carried out only when regarding acceptable standards from human rights philosophy. Others, concerned with the endangerment of equality between individuals will answer that: once accepted, the principle of making more concessions for more diversity in the field of human rights, the control on the cultural incorporation in this field is lost.

Glossary of definitions of key terms in the field of International Humanitarian Law


Bien qu’il soit admis que le relativisme culturel fasse apparaître un problème général, il vient en réalité soit trop tôt, soit trop tard. Dans notre cas, et à ce moment charnière de l’histoire, nous devons reconnaître que l’heure est plutôt tardive. Dans un monde où vont croissant la mondialisation, la « glocalisation », l’interdépendance et l’interconnexion, nous devons tenir compte des conséquences de la « complexité culturelle » et construire une conception de la « culture » alternative, et plus appropriée, que celle qui sous-tend le relativisme culturel. En faisant cela, nous serons mieux capable de saisir les besoins normatifs, pragmatiques et politiques qui nous sont imposés à ce moment de l’histoire, pour prendre nos responsabilités envers les autres de manière plus sérieuse que jusqu’à maintenant. Ainsi, nous pourrons sans doute être plus enclins à casser drastiquement les murs de nos « prisons culturelles » et à rejeter les illusions confortablement engourdissantes mais dangereuses d’une existence relativiste où chacun reste dans son enclos.

Les théoriciens continuent aujourd’hui de débattre des façons dont les fondations du relativisme culturel peuvent être établies ou pas, peuvent être justifiées rationnellement ou pas ; mais il ne semble pas possible de passer outre à la nécessité de la justification normative (et donc, de la théorie morale) dès lors que l’on s’aventure dans l’arène de la critique sociale et politique. C’est là qu’est, je crois, le plus important défi pour la philosophie morale et politique aujourd’hui. De par leur caractère, les arguments que nous devons inévitablement employer dans la sphère morale doivent trouver leur place dans un cadre théorique plus large afin de démontrer que les critiques ne sont ni purement de circonstance, ni ne satisfont des objectifs idéologiques suspects.

Si le consensus sur le fait que « l’autre culturel » est en même temps mon égal et mon différent est général, le poids que chacun est susceptible d’accorder à l’égalité, à la différence et à leurs implications peut être très variable. De ce fait l’importance relative donnée aux droits de l’homme et aux droits autochtones dans cette articulation l’est aussi. Cette variabilité peut être en rapport, d’une part, avec les situations concrètes relatives aux droits coutumiers rencontrées sur le terrain : on est certainement plus sensible aux arguments de la tradition lorsque celle-ci ne heurte pas nos valeurs, alors qu’on aura tendance à mettre en avant les droits de l’homme dans le cas contraire. D’autre part, une préférence idéologique soit pour l’affirmation de la différence, soit pour un égalitarisme porteur d’homogénéité influera certainement non seulement sur la façon de concevoir l’articulation de l’universel avec le particulier d’ordre culturel mais aussi sur la pertinence d’une telle articulation. Aux yeux de certains, l’image d’ouverture qu’implique le souci de conciliation entre droits culturels et droits universels ne sera qu’illusoire, dans la mesure où une telle ouverture ne peut se faire que vis-à-vis de normes acceptables dès le départ par la philosophie des droits de l’homme. D’autres, soucieux de ne pas mettre en danger l’égalité entre individus, répliqueront avec insistance qu’une fois que l’on accepte le principe de faire des concessions à la diversité dans le domaine des droits de l’homme, on perd la possibilité de contrôler la façon dont la culture s’y infiltre.

Lexique des définitions et termes clés dans le domaine du droit international humanitaire

Il Giorno della Memoria

International Holocaust Remembrance Day – Il Giorno della Memoria
“O the black bird went into my heart and stole it. Here I live in auschtwitz here in auschtwitz I’m hungry, there isn’t a piece of bread to eat. there isn’t nothing to eat here its all my bad luck. at one time I had my home. I’m so hungry I could kill. oh oh Jesus. OH OH. ”

Imperialismo, sovranità e la creazione del diritto internazionale (Ing. & Fr.)


Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law. / For the discipline of international law, the relationship between the states system, colonialism and international law is something of a chicken and egg question: Which came first? Tradition suggests that international law came ‘to the colonies fully formed and ready for application, as if the colonial project simply entailed assimilating these aberrant societies into an existing, stable, “Eurocentric” system’ […] civilizing missions nowadays bare the varnish of respectability under the guise of democratization, human rights, economic liberalization and development.” Brett Bowden, University of Queensland – translated by myself.

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To all Happy New Year 💞 😃 💞

2017, prima risoluzione: farò esattamente come voglio, Bonne Année à tous !! 😀 first year resolution, I’ll do nothing else than what I like !!! 😀 première bonne résolution, je ne ferai que ce qui me plaît !!! 😀
 A tutti, felice anno nuovo  To all Happy New Year  Yeni iliniz mübarək  শুভ নববর্ষ  Yeni Yılınız Kutlu Olsun  Tahun baru Buen año a todos  💛💙💜💚💗💓  💖💝💞