The conception of nature as matter to be objectified by modern science or as an inanimate resource at our disposal is currently being disrupted by ecological, ethological, anthropological and philosophical research. Because of global warming, nature is simultaneously entering the political scene. Ironically, the urgent need to reassess our relationship to nature is surfacing at the very same time that we are losing its concept. Along the way, we might also lose a certain type of humanhood: who are we becoming, and what is our place in this coming nature? Continue reading
By virtue of a habit determined by our own conditions of social existence, we only consider money as an economic agent which acquires merchandise on a market. It is inseparable from the equivalence that can explain why goods are traded and according to which relationship; the latter determines their economic value. In the classical theories, money is therefore defined by exchange, that is to say by a form of reciprocity. It is this definition that the practices of certain so-called exotic societies call into question – they who see money as a means of exchange only because it is first the object of a gift. Continue reading
Narrare la guerra non è più narrare una storia di eroi ma piuttosto narrare una storia di eroismo inutile. Come osserva Alberto Casadei a proposito del Partigiano Johnny di Fenoglio: «Ogni eroismo è ormai inutile, e il destino di tutti i partigiani, per quanto giusta possa essere la loro causa, è la morte». Non è un caso quindi che Simona Vinci apra il prologo del suo romanzo Come prima delle madri con il ritrovamento di un morto:
Disteso nel greto asciutto del fiume […] c’era un uomo. Un uomo disteso che dormiva. […] L’uomo non stava dormendo. Aveva il cranio fracassato. […] L’uomo non aveva più una faccia. […] Un uomo solo, senza faccia, con le mani disfatte e il corpo nudo. Continue reading
Is universalism respectful of cultural differences attainable? It does not seem possible to ignore the need for normative justification (thus, moral theory) when we venture into the social and political critics arena. By their very nature, arguments that we must inevitably use in the moral sphere must be included in a wider theoretical framework in order to demonstrate that criticisms do not merely depend on circumstances, nor satisfy suspect ideological goals. Continue reading
The bounds of law 1 – ‘Law’ is not omnipotent within the social field and everything happens, according to societies and times, in the infinite variety of inclusion and exclusion relationships with other normative systems. Next, the issue of the so called ‘science of Law’ appears in the current epistemological range that must combine with other sciences: this shows that Law does not have a position overlooking all other disciplines, but has relations of cooperation, competition and hostility, according to the disciplines and the moments, creating questionable bounds. The only possible posture might be that of a certain epistemology like Michel Foucault when trying to think of the emergence of human sciences in Western history. Continue reading
Women and Globalization Silvia Federici
“Globalization” has been described in different ways. In the literature emanating from the international financial institutions, it is portrayed as a more effective system of economic management, ensuring the free circulation of goods and enhancing the “comparative advantage” of different countries, each presumably utilizing its resources to the best effect for both local populations and world development. Policy-analysts thus stress the globalization of financial markets, capital investments, new technologies which, we are told, will lead in the foreseeable future to increased prosperity also in the “developing” countries. My own perspective is that “globalization” is a strategy seeking to determine a process of global proletarianization and the formation of a global labor market as means to cheapen the cost of labor, reduce workers’ entitlements, and intensify exploitation. These, in fact, are the most unmistakable effects of the policies by which globalization is driven. But however defined, the social and economic consequences of globalization cannot be denied. After two decades of globalizing interventions in the world economy (creation of the World Trade organization (WTO), structural adjustment, TRIPS, etc.) one billion people live in conditions of “absolute poverty” (UN Population Fund 2001). Meanwhile, the Third World debt has increased from $800 billion in 1980 to a staggering $2,900 billion in 1999 (World Bank 2000), precluding the possibility of repayment, while the predicted industrialization of the Third World has not materialized despite the proliferation of Free Processing Zones (FPZs). Most important, mechanisms are now in place – debt servicing, structural adjustment, import liberalization and, crucial to all, generalized warfare – that systematically lead millions of people away from their means of subsistence, uprooting them from their lands, their jobs, their countries, in what appears as the largest proletarianization and migration process since the turn of the 20th century (Federici 1992; 1999). Continue reading
Autism, language, communication, picture, remediation.
The communication conveys a message that passes through language. This does not mean that it cannot pass through other codes. Therefore, it would be unwise to say that people who do not share with us the commonly accepted codes do not communicate. This is the case with persons with autism who are not in the same relationship to the world as we are. Their language can be developed only from meaningful elements and solidified by pictures/words that will anchor them in the social contract. We will discuss here creating a transverse space from the codes developed by these children and the reception we are trying to develop, giving rise to a linguistic creation in order to optimize communication.