By virtue of a habit determined by our own conditions of social existence, we only consider money as an economic agent which acquires merchandise on a market. It is inseparable from the equivalence that can explain why goods are traded and according to which relationship; the latter determines their economic value. In the classical theories, money is therefore defined by exchange, that is to say by a form of reciprocity. It is this definition that the practices of certain so-called exotic societies call into question – they who see money as a means of exchange only because it is first the object of a gift. Continue reading
We‘ve never been modern, objectivity, illusion and truth in visual art. It would be impossible to accurately assess, or even, at times, to follow the individual arguments made in all of the four books presented here, so widely do the authors draw upon the history of ideas, the history of institutions, the history of the visual arts and epistemology, in different places and periods from the dawn of the birth of art to the present. (review of 4 books on this subject) Continue reading
The bounds of law 1 – ‘Law’ is not omnipotent within the social field and everything happens, according to societies and times, in the infinite variety of inclusion and exclusion relationships with other normative systems. Next, the issue of the so called ‘science of Law’ appears in the current epistemological range that must combine with other sciences: this shows that Law does not have a position overlooking all other disciplines, but has relations of cooperation, competition and hostility, according to the disciplines and the moments, creating questionable bounds. The only possible posture might be that of a certain epistemology like Michel Foucault when trying to think of the emergence of human sciences in Western history. Continue reading
Tribal identity and globalization
Characteristic of a necessary stage in the development of human societies in evolutionary thought, the tribe is, in “classical” anthropology, an operating model of “stateless societies”. In its broadest sense, it appears as an instrument for classification and hierarchisation of societies and cultures. Like the ethnic group, the tribe presents identity features shared by the populations concerned. Decolonization and postmodernist deconstruction of these two notions have very clearly called into question ethnic classifications, but much less clearly the use of the term “tribe”. Reflecting the persistence of this identity referent – vigorously reaffirmed in recent decades – in the representations of the populations of a part of Africa and the Middle East, where the tribe is a name sharing reality – a local categorization, the Arabic qabīla for example – and nominative – used to identify individuals and groups, these names are perpetuated in a secular way. Continue reading
Autism, language, communication, picture, remediation.
The communication conveys a message that passes through language. This does not mean that it cannot pass through other codes. Therefore, it would be unwise to say that people who do not share with us the commonly accepted codes do not communicate. This is the case with persons with autism who are not in the same relationship to the world as we are. Their language can be developed only from meaningful elements and solidified by pictures/words that will anchor them in the social contract. We will discuss here creating a transverse space from the codes developed by these children and the reception we are trying to develop, giving rise to a linguistic creation in order to optimize communication.