Dono, scambio, valore e moneta (Fr & Ing.)

By virtue of a habit determined by our own conditions of social existence, we only consider money as an economic agent which acquires merchandise  on a market. It is inseparable from the equivalence that can explain why goods are traded and according to which relationship; the latter determines their economic value. In the classical theories, money is therefore defined by exchange, that is to say by a form of reciprocity. It is this definition that the practices of certain so-called exotic societies call into question – they who see money as a means of exchange only because it is first the object of a gift. Continue reading


The bounds of law 1 – ‘Law’ is not omnipotent within the social field and everything happens, according to societies and times, in the infinite variety of inclusion and exclusion relationships with other normative systems. Next, the issue of the so called ‘science of Law’ appears in the current epistemological range that must combine with other sciences: this shows that Law does not have a position overlooking all other disciplines, but has relations of cooperation, competition and hostility, according to the disciplines and the moments, creating questionable bounds. The only possible posture might be that of a certain epistemology like Michel Foucault when trying to think of the emergence of human sciences in Western history. Continue reading

Il dirottamento della lingua per delimitare i confini delle nazioni e per definire l’identità nazionale (Ing. & Fr.)


“Back to the 19th century: how language is being used to mark national borders. According to a series of newspapers, immigrants will apparently change the English language in Britain beyond repair over the next 50 years. The Daily Telegraph, the Daily Mail and the Daily Express have all run alarming stories on this topic. Language will change “because there are so many foreigners who struggle to pronounce” certain sounds, such “th” as in thin or this.” Mario Saraceni – Senior Lecturer in English Language and Linguistics, University of Portsmouth – Article translated into French by myself. Continue reading