L’universalismo rispettoso delle differenze culturali è raggiungibili?

Is universalism respectful of cultural differences attainable? It does not seem possible to ignore the need for normative justification (thus, moral theory) when we venture into the social and political critics arena. By their very nature, arguments that we must inevitably use in the moral sphere must be included in a wider theoretical framework in order to demonstrate that criticisms do not merely depend on circumstances, nor satisfy suspect ideological goals. Continue reading

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The Papacy in the Fourteenth Century and the installation in Avignon

Avignon 2

The opening words of the Bull Redemptor Noster, issued by the Pope John on April 1st 1318, presenting the missionary success on the far side of the world, did not deal with the idea of the papacy as an outdated universal monarchy concept. At the very least, John XXII made use of the opportunity to reaffirm the fullness of the “Vicar of the Christ” power, at the head of a militant church called to take up the entire world, onto its furthest parts. Continue reading